The company Antenore Visentin builds machines for all phases of wheat processing: for cleaning, for grinding and grading flour.
But what is the wheat ?
The image shows a section of a grain of wheat.
The bran is composed of six layers that follow , from the outside inwards . The last layer is the one of the cells aleuroniche . The bran has as a whole , a high content of mineral components (ash ) . The ash content is minimal in the first outer layers (2 to 2.5 % ) and is maximum in correspondence to the cells aleuroniche (from 7 to 8 % and more ) .
The endosperm or powdery mass is composed of starch cells mixed with gluten.
The beard is made up of many small tubes that connect the atmosphere with the interior of the grain. The beard is therefore, as a whole , the organ of respiration of the fruit. Through the beard oxygen reaches the interior of the grain and you have carbon dioxide emissions . When the seed tends to germinate , intensifies breathing , with production of heat. For impediere this phenomenon must dry the corn and keep it at a moderate temperature .
The germ is located at one end of the grain on the side opposite to the beard , separated by a thin layer from the endosperm . And ' rich in nitrogenous substances , fats and minerals .
The grain of wheat is not a dead body but a structure ready to be activated under certain conditions of temperature and humidity to germinate and give rise to the formation of the new plant
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE GRAIN OF WHEAT
The endosperm we have already said that it is composed of cells of starch granules mixed with smaller gluten .
It 'important component of the grain of wheat and consists of vegetable gum , vegetable fibrin and casein . It ' a very complex substance made up of albuminoid . If they know of 5 different characteristics: the leucosina , edestin , and the protein components are soluble in water and therefore of little interest to the effects of baking . The other two components , gliadin and glutenin , are insoluble in water , but with this form a dough chewy, important for the successful outcome of the bakery . The gluten grains are concentrated in the outer endosperm , bran towards ; the percentage of gluten in these areas is double that on the inner ones .
It ' a carbohydrate, composed of carbon , hydrogen, oxygen . E ' devoid of nitrogen . Can be broken down into dextrin and sugar. These substances , in the human body , combine to combustion with oxygen , producing heat and therefore energy. The starch granules are concentrated in the inner endosperm .
Gluten and starch
Both are necessary for the preparation of bread . In the mixture of flour with baking powder and salt , by the action of proteolytic enzymes and diastasici , you have the breakdown of starch into sugar and yeast feeds on it by issuing the carbon dioxide gas in the form of bubbles that make the dough porous . But this gas must remain imprisoned in the dough itself, thanks to the tenacity and elasticity of gluten. If the gluten is weak , the gas escapes from mixing and bread is compact and low as unwelcome.